Express Scripts Holding Company operates as a pharmacy benefit management (PBM) company in the United States, Canada, and Europe. It operates in two segments, PBM and Other Business Operations. The PBM segment offers clinical solutions, specialized pharmacy care, home delivery and specialty pharmacy, retail network pharmacy administration, benefit design consultation, drug utilization review, drug formulary management, administration of a group purchasing organization, and consumer health and drug information services. This segment also provides Medicare, Medicaid, and health insurance marketplace products; and Express Scripts SafeGuardRxSM, a suite of solutions targeting the medication classes that pose a budgetary threat to its clients. The Other Business Operations segment distributes pharmaceuticals and medical supplies, including injectable and infusible pharmaceuticals and medications to treat specialty and rare/orphan diseases. This segment also provides consulting services, such as design, implementation, and project management for pharmaceutical and biotechnology manufacturers to collect scientific evidence to guide the use of medicines. The company serves care organizations, health insurers, third-party administrators, employers, union-sponsored benefit plans, workers' compensation plans, government health programs, providers, clinics, hospitals, and others. As of December 31, 2016, it operated four automated dispensing home delivery pharmacies; one non-automated dispensing home delivery pharmacy; and one non-dispensing home delivery pharmacy, as well as various non-dispensing order processing and patient contact centers, specialty drug pharmacies, and fertility pharmacies. The company was formerly known as Aristotle Holding, Inc. and changed its name to Express Scripts Holding Company in April 2012. Express Scripts Holding Company was founded in 1986 and is headquartered in Saint Louis, Missouri.